In February, coach Tite confirmed 16 of the 23 he would take to Russian Federation, though last week he was dealt a blow as right-back Dani Alves was forced to rule himself out of contention with a serious knee injury.
Alves faces a long term lay off with damage to his anterior cruciate ligament in his knee. The Brazilian Football Confederation said in a statement on Friday he needs surgery.
Fagner, who plays for Corinthians, is now injured and will be visited by team doctor Rodrigo Lasmar - the surgeon who operated on Neymar - on Sunday.
"From the moment I stepped on the ground, I knew I wasn't going to be on the plane to Russian Federation. I have lived my dreams", he said.
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The 30-year-old, who played only five minutes in World Cup qualifying, has been named as one of four forwards in Tite's squad. "I don't consider myself a veteran". Alves, who has been capped 107 times for his country, had been considered a certainty for selection.
"In the changing room, the PSG doctors told me that we would have to wait until the next day to get the results of some tests, but I knew in my heart that it was over". I don't want anybody to feel sorry for me.
It means Bayern Munich winger Douglas Costa, City goalkeeper Ederson and in-demand Shakhtar midfielder Fred have earned their places, as well as Fagner, Taison, Gremio's Pedro Geromel, Atletico Madrid full-back Filipe Luis and Corinthians keeper Cassio.
That three-week period would make him fit just in time for the beginning of the tournament in Russian Federation, with Brazil's first game coming on June 17 against Switzerland.