Nadal joins Australia's Margaret Court as the only player to win 11 titles at the same major.
Nadal appeared to be suffering with cramp in his left arm early in the third but even that discomfort could not derail him as the "King of Clay" extended his scarcely believable French Open win-loss record to 86-2, further underlining his status as the greatest of all time on the red dirt.
Thiem, playing in his first Grand Slam final, simply had few answers to Nadal's brilliance.
Nadal will have Federer's record of 20 Grand Slams in his sights, and will be hoping to challenge the Swiss at Wimbledon at the start of July.
The square-shouldered Austrian tried his best to engage with Nadal rather than let Nadal's avalanche of statistics overwhelm him.
Nadal called on the trainer to get his forearms massaged twice in the final set but even that problem failed to improve Thiem's chances of emulating fellow Austrian Thomas Muster's 1995 triumph.
It's been nearly eerie to watch Nadal have such contrasting fortunes on clay-as we saw on Sunday-compared to on grass, with Wimbledon accounting for his worst record in any major over recent years. However, here a year ago in the semi-finals, Nadal destroyed Thiem, losing just seven games in a rout, but it is worth mentioning that Thiem triumphed in their last meeting in Madrid last month, in the quarter-finals.
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11 is the number of times he has won in French Open final.
Nadal defeated fifth seed Juan Martin Del Potro 6-4 6-1 6-2 in the semi-finals and afterwards the Argentine said it is "almost impossible" to beat Nadal on clay.
- Nadal hails his 11th French Open title as "just incredible" despite a worrying injury scare in the closing stages of the final.
At 2-1 in the fourth set, Nadal stopped serving during a game because he couldn't straighten his left middle finger.
Some wishful anticipation had been made of the fact that, 30 days prior, Thiem had beaten Nadal on the clay of Madrid, but Thiem reminded everyone Friday that the clay of Madrid is not the clay of Paris.
But the Austrian freed his shoulders and broke back in the third game with a forehand victor - pumping his fists in the direction of coach Gunter Bresnik.
He became the first player to hold three major titles on three different surfaces at the same time when he won the Australian Open with a five-set success against Federer again. At the beginning of 2017, Federer held 17 Slams to Nadal's 14.
There was still fight in Thiem, though, and he had a break point when Nadal served at 4-2 ― a game in which the Spaniard was warned for taking too long to serve.