In one exchange published in court Wednesday, Manafort instructs his Cypriot lawyer, Kypros Chrysostomides - referred to in court as "Dr. K" because, according to Gates, his name is hard to spell and pronounce - to transfer money from the Manafort-controlled Leviathan Ltd. He said there were 15 secret accounts.
Mr Gates said he did, but the defence lawyer wasn't satisfied.
Mr Gates testified he and Mr Manafort knew they were committing crimes for years, saying they had stashed money in foreign bank accounts and falsified bank loan documents.
"I've acknowledged there was a period where I had another relationship", said Gates, who is married.
Gates faced a thrashing to his reputation from lead defense attorney Kevin Downing on Tuesday and Wednesday as Downing sought to undermine Gates' credibility as a witness. But Trump has shown interest in the proceedings, tweeting support for Manafort and suggesting he has been treated worse than gangster Al Capone. He initially tried to avoid admitting he purposefully lied to the Federal Bureau of Investigation about a 2013 meeting Manafort attended with a US congressman and tried to avoid using the term "embezzled" in relation to the inflated expense reports he submitted for reimbursement during his employment with Manafort.
But when Downing tried to question Gates on Tuesday about what the special counsel team had asked him about the Trump campaign, Andres objected. Gates and Manafort were not targets of the Federal Bureau of Investigation at the time of the interview.
Prosecutors so far have offered testimony on Manafort's alleged tax fraud, including wide-ranging testimony from his former deputy Rick Gates and Manafort's former tax preparer Cindy LaPorta.
The judge overseeing the Paul Manafort trial, U.S. District Court Judge T.S. Ellis, has clashed with prosecutors in recent days.
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During cross examination, Manafort's attorneys pointed out Gates' extramarital affairs, including a woman in London who may have had a hand in the financial crimes Gates to which admitted, Politico reported. Gates testified that he had an extramarital affair a decade ago, and also that he embezzled hundreds of thousands of dollars from Manafort.
Asked if he had been coached, Gates replied, "The only answer I was told was to tell the truth". Gates has already pled guilty to two counts in Mueller's probe and testified against Manafort as part of a plea deal with the special counsel's office.
Gates was hired by Manafort to serve as deputy campaign chairman and later had a role on Mr Trump's inaugural committee.
Manafort, 69, faces tax evasion and bank fraud charges, as he is accused of hiding a "significant percentage" of income earned from his lobbyist work in Ukraine from the IRS. At one point, as Gates had trouble recalling the details of his confession, Downing asked him, "Have they confronted you with so many lies that you can't even remember them?"
"After all the lies you've told, and the fraud you've committed, you expect the jury will believe you?" He also testified that he pressed the firm's accountants to reclassify loans as income so the company could qualify for more bank loans or get favorable lending rates.
According to Gates, Manafort, who had by then left the campaign, asked Gates in various ways to use his position on Trump's team to do favors for Stephen Calk, a banker who had loaned Manafort millions of dollars - loans that Mueller's team alleges were consummated under false pretenses.
On re-direct from the prosecution, Magionos agreed that two of Manafort's signatures on the same foreign bank document appeared different - implying that he didn't always sign his name the same way.