To contain warming at 1.5C, man-made global net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions would need to fall by about 45 percent by 2030 from 2010 levels and reach "net zero" by mid-century.
"The policy implications of the report are obvious: We need to implement a suite of policies to sharply limit carbon emissions and build climate resilience, and we must do all this is in a way that prioritizes equitable outcomes particularly for the world's poor and marginalized communities", Cleetus added.
"The next few years are probably the most important in our history", she said.
Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C would require rapid, far- reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society, the IPCC said in a new assessment. At least 70 percent of electricity supply will need to come from renewables by 2050 to stay within the 1.5C limit, compared with about 25 percent now.
Impacts ranging from increased droughts and water scarcity to extreme weather, spread of diseases such as malaria, economic damage, and harm to yields of maize, rice and wheat will be less severe at 1.5C than 2C. "For instance", says an executive summary, "by 2100, global sea level rise would be 10 cm [centimeters] lower with global warming of 1.5°C compared with 2°C".
The larger import of the finalised report's findings was not much different from that of the drafts that had leaked out earlier, though the negotiations between government representatives and scientists did end up substantially altering how much confidence the governments placed on different findings based on the scientific evidence underlying the summarised take-aways.
"What we need to do is move our energy mix to having a greater proportion of renewables".
The planet is already two-thirds of the way there, with global temperatures having warmed about 1 degree C.
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This report shows the longer we leave it to act, the more hard, the more expensive and the more unsafe it will be. And right now, we're not anywhere close to the path to make it happen.
Allowing the global temperature to temporarily exceed or "overshoot" 1.5 °C would mean a greater reliance on techniques that remove Carbon dioxide from the air to return global temperature to below 1.5 °C by 2100.
"If we don't quit coal, we are screwed", said Mr Bandt.
"International cooperation is absolutely imperative to limit emissions and therefore global warming and its impacts, as well as coordinating effective and widespread adaptation and mitigation", said Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick, a fellow at the Climate Change Research Center at the University of New South Wales. WWF calls on leaders to accelerate climate action immediately'.
Tropical nations most affected by climate asked the UN to create a report showing the difference in impact between a 1.5 degree Celcius (2.7 degrees F) and a 2.0 C (3.6 degree F) increase.
However, they warn that the Liberal government's approach will undermine Canada's economic competitiveness and saddle consumers with higher costs.
RealClimateScience.com's Tony Heller ticked off past failed predictions of global-warming disaster, such as a 1989 U.N. warning that "entire nations could be wiped from the face of the earth" by rising seas unless global warming was reversed by 2000.
The Nobel Prize-winning organisation said that the world was well off track in its goal of limiting global temperature rise to below 1.5ºC and heading for 2ºC or more.
Besides special reports, the IPCC has issued five major Assessment Reports that serve as the scientific foundation for United Nations climate talk. Although the report says that emissions would not be the sole contributor to temperatures above 1.5°C, the future rates of emission reductions will determine whether temps rise. Considering that such techniques could save us even in the event that we overshoot the 1.5-degree-Celsius mark, this route sounds pretty appealing.