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Half of the 9-million-kronor ($1.01m) prize was designated for Frances Arnold of Caltech in Pasadena for conducting the first directed evolution of enzymes, leading to more environment friendly manufacturing of chemicals, including drugs, and in the production of renewable fuels.

In announcing the award, the Royal Swedish Academy said that this year's prize "awards a revolution based on evolution", and goes to scientists who "applied the principles of Darwin in the test tube".

The Guardian's Nicola Davis reports that Arnold's directed evolution of enzymes (proteins that catalyze, or accelerate, chemical reactions) essentially boils down to the introduction of genetic mutations that allow enzymes to perform more efficiently or in ways that they normally wouldn't.

In the 1990s, Sir Gregory developed a new way of producing antibody proteins using a technique called "phage display" that makes use of genetically engineered viruses.

Winter later used this method to direct the evolution of antibodies to create pharmaceutical drugs.

These drugs - the first of which were approved in the early 2000s - are now routinely used to treat advanced cancers and autoimmune disorders and to counteract toxins. "It's happenstance. That was certainly the case with my work", he said.

As only the fifth woman out of more than 178 honorees to receive the chemistry prize, Arnold's win is significant.

Douglas Kell, a professor of bioanalytical science at the University of Manchester, says the prize is "fantastic news". Essentially, Winter used the phage technology in order to engineer new "antibodies" in the bacteria - large proteins that are used by the immune system to fight harmful bacteria and viruses.

The scientists have pioneered techniques in a process known as "directed evolution", which creates new proteins by using processes which simulate natural selection.

Two of the three winners of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry have virtually polar opposite political connections to Israel: One is actively anti-Israel, while the other promotes ties between Israel and the UK.

Petrol, diesel prices cut by Rs 2.50 per litre
States saw their Value-Added Tax revenue from petro goods rise from Rs 1,37,157 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 1,84,091 crore in 2017-18. Jaitley also urged state governments to further reduce VAT and other state-level taxes to further drop the price.

Dr. Arnold and Dr. Smith are both American, while Dr.

He concludes, "Very few research breakthroughs are novel".

The victor of the Nobel Peace Prize is to be announced Friday.

After repeatedly screening and mutating those microbes, she could use them to build a more powerful version of a desired protein. "They have used the molecular understanding we have of the evolutionary process and recreated the process in their labs", head of the Academy's Nobel Chemistry committee Claes Gustafsson told reporters.

- Strickland, Arthur Ashkin of the United States and Gérard Mourou of France were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday for their work developing tools made of light beams.

And he revealed he planned to party on by splashing out £2,793 of his prize money on a champagne celebration at his laboratory.

"At first glance it may seem that the Chemistry Nobel has been "biologised" again".

That's it for this episode and for our coverage of the 2018 Nobel Prizes in the sciences.

On Monday, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet gave this year's medicine award to cancer researchers James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo.

"It would've been nice if I got the prize like 10 years ago so a whole bunch of grant proposals that didn't get funded probably would've gotten funded", Smith said.