They include the first female physics prize victor in 55 years.
Donna Strickland, from Canada, is only the third woman victor of the award, along with Marie Curie, who won in 1903, and Maria Goeppoert-Mayer, who was awarded the prize in 1963. John Bardeen is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972.
Arthur Ashkin of Bell Laboratories in the United States won half of the prize for inventing "optical tweezers" while Frenchman Gerard Mourou, who also has USA citizenship, and Canada's Donna Strickland shared the other half for work on high-intensity lasers.
She shares half the $1.4 million prize with French laser physicist Gerard Mourou. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said a year ago it would seek to more actively encourage nominations of women researchers to begin addressing the imbalance.
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The inventions revolutionized the field, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noted in its announcement. Their discoveries "opened up new areas of research and led to broad industrial and medical applications", the academy said.
Nobel Laureate Arthur Ashkin has been awarded the Nobel Prize for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems, while Laureates Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland have been awarded the prize for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.
Ashkin, 96, is the oldest ever Nobel prize victor.
Three scientists from the United States, France and Canada have been awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for advances in laser physics.
The Nobel chemistry prize comes Wednesday, followed by the peace prize on Friday.