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The victor of the Nobel Peace Prize is to be announced on Friday.

One of Britain's most successful scientist entrepreneurs will share this year's Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Arnold's enzymes allow for more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemicals like pharmaceuticals and manufacturing of renewable fuels.

The first pharmaceutical based on Winter's work was approved for use in 2002 and is employed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the academy said.

Screen displays portraits of Frances H Arnold and George P Smith, both of the United States, and Gregory P Winter of Great Britain during the announcement of the winners of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This technique uses bacteria-infecting viruses to drive the evolution of new proteins and antibodies.

"We are in the early days of directed evolution's revolution which, in many different ways, is bringing and will bring the greatest benefit to humankind", according to the academy's statement.

She said that while historically it was true that far fewer women than men worked in research, the scientific community needed to wake up the field's changing demographics.

On Monday, James Allison, who spent three years as a postdoctoral fellow at Scripps Research in La Jolla, won the Nobel in physiology or medicine for his work in fighting cancer.

Smith, 77, was a professor for 40 years at the University of Missouri at the Division of Biological Sciences.

Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded for New Weapon Against Cancer
Koch Center for Applied Research in Genitourinary Cancers in the Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology. He holds the Vivian Smith Distinguished Chair in Immunology and serves as deputy director of the David H.

Life on Earth exists because over the past 3.7 billion years organisms have adapted to their environment, with evolution solving complex chemical problems: fish can for example swim in polar oceans because they have antifreeze proteins in their blood.

- Strickland, Arthur Ashkin of the United States and Gérard Mourou of France were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday for their work developing tools made of light beams.

Arnold told the Princeton Alumni Weekly in 2014 that her methodology had initially been viewed skeptically by "gentleman scientists", but she told herself, "I'm not a gentleman and I'm not a scientist" - she still identifies as an engineer - "so I didn't mind".

"Frances H. Arnold was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1956 and she's now at the California Institute of Technology, Caltech, in Pasadena in the Los Angeles area".

Professor Frances Arnold, an American chemist, was awarded half of the prize, which is worth 9 million Swedish kroner (£771,000).

"Frances's work has added entirely new dimensions to protein chemistry and biotechnology", said Douglas Clark, dean of the College of Chemistry at Berkeley and a friend of Arnold's.

Smith, reached at his home in Columbia, Missouri, was quick to credit the work of others for his prize.

For the first time since 1949, the Swedish Academy has postponed the announcement of the 2018 Nobel Literature Prize until next year, amid a #MeToo scandal and bitter internal dispute that has prevented it from functioning properly. Fifteen graduate alumni have won Nobel Prizes, most recently Kip Thorne, who completed his Ph.D.in 1965 and won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics.