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On top of that, Arnault also has been suspected of violating century-old Nobel rules by leaking names of winners of the prestigious award - allegedly seven times, starting in 1996.

Cancer is one of the biggest health challenges faced by humanity.

Two researchers from the United States and Japan won the Nobel Prize in medicine on Monday for discoveries that help the body marshal its cellular troops to attack invading cancers. James Allison, from the University of Texas, and Tasuku Honjo, from Kyoto University, despite working in different labs both found that proteins act as brakes on the immune system.

"Time is right", Kärre said.

Allison, an immunologist, studied a protein receptor called CTLA-4 on T-cells, which acted as a brake to keep the immune system under control. He holds the Vivian Smith Distinguished Chair in Immunology and serves as deputy director of the David H. Koch Center for Applied Research in Genitourinary Cancers in the Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology. Hundreds of clinical trials are now underway to test CTLA-4, PD-1 and other drugs that use the immune system to fight various cancers.

At news conference later Monday in Kyoto, Honjo said what makes him most delighted is when he hears from patients who have recovered from serious illnesses because of his research. He was still in shock hours later.

"I was doing basic science to do basic science, but you know, I had the good opportunity to see it develop into something that actually does people good", Allison has said. It's every scientist's dream to do fundamental work that's important, but then to have it translate into helping people is all that much better. He's anxious about the other patients, whose cancer resisted drug treatment.

"The booming field of immunotherapy that these discoveries have precipitated is still relatively in its infancy, so it´s exciting to consider how this research will progress in the future", said Charles Swanton, Cancer Research UK´s chief clinician.

Violinist Balabhaskar to be cremated with state honours today
Balabhaskar was part of a band called "Balaleela" and his stage performances across the country gained him popularity. The violinist performed with musicians like Sivamani, Ustad Zakir Hussain, Hariharan and Fazal Qureshi to name a few.

The Assembly notes in a press release that Allison and Honjo "have established a completely new principle for cancer therapy" and that 'their pioneering discoveries are a milestone in our fight against cancer.

The two scientists will share the prize of $1.39.

Promising results soon followed from several groups, and in 2010, a key test showed striking effects in patients with advanced melanoma.

Immunotherapy has only been used on patients for a few years, however.

The drug worked. A year after she began treatment, scans showed her cancer had disappeared. Patients treated with ipilimumab alone had a median OS of 10 months compared with 6 months for those treated with gp100.

"The discovery of Jim Allison led to the first drug that routinely caused patients with a metastatic disease - melanoma - to go into complete remission", he said.

"The transformation of our basic immunological insight into CTLA-4 biology in the Allison lab into a cure is a model for how science should be applied", Krummel said.

James P. Allison of MD Anderson Cancer Center at The University of Texas in this picture obtained from MD Anderson Cancer Center (R) and Kyoto University Professor Tasuku Honjo in Kyoto, in this photo taken by Kyodo. He said that clinicians and investigators have come to accept immunotherapy as the fourth pillar of cancer care along with radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy.


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