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The IPCC accepted the invitation, adding that the Special Report would look at these issues in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. The world needs statesmen to lead the way to safety.

"I think we need to start a debate about who is going to pay for it, and whether it's right for the fossil-fuel industry and its customers to be enjoying the benefits today and expecting the next generation to pay for cleaning it up", Allen says. "What could go wrong?"

At the same time, highly exposed countries such as Namibia and Botswana need to anticipate and plan for quite rapid changes in local weather and climate.

The world is warming faster than we previously believed and we are in dire need of immediate action to reduce carbon emissions.

Mangroves are being planted in the coastal district of An Bien in the Mekong Delta Province Kien Giang to fight off erosion and salt intrusion - negative phenomena exacerbated by climate change.

More than two decades before NASA scientist James Hansen testified about climate change before Congress in 1989, scientists told President Lyndon B. Johnson that the burning of fossil fuels was increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

"Global warming is likely to reach 1.5 degrees C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate", the report states. A few years ago, Botswana's capital city Gaborone was on the brink of running out of water as the country battled its worst drought in 30 years.

Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), said on Monday in Geneva that there was "extreme urgency" needed on the part of Paris Agreement signatories, and "so far the progress hasn't been good enough" to keep temperature rises below even 2°. The new report offered a look at the the consequences of a 2.7 degree rise. The proportion of the global population exposed to water stress (difficulty obtaining fresh water) could be 50 % lower at 1.5 degrees than at 2 degrees. Moreover, coral reefs, already threatened, would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 1.5°C, whereas virtually all would be lost with 2°C, according to the report.

Small differences can have huge impacts.

A counter view is that what New Zealanders do is as relevant as what any other collection of five million people do, but that avoids the point.

OPEC slashes growth forecast for global oil demand
President Donald Trump has repeatedly demanded the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries pump more to temper prices. Money managers cut their net long U.S. crude futures and options positions in the week to October 9, the U.S.

Please don't dismiss all of this as just another boring compendium of carefully hedged facts and figures.

The IPCC has requested everybody to follow its instructions. The new report strikes a different tone that combines tired fatalism with hair-on-fire alarm. "It is generally the poor and disadvantaged who are most affected".

For South Africa, this could mean a temperature rise of almost up to 6°C as the country is impacted twice as much as the global average. With 2 degrees they are much, much worse.

The IPCC's report sets out a clear pathway - to limit temperature increases to 1.5C, the world must achieve carbon neutrality (net zero emissions) by 2050.

To have a chance of meeting the 1.5 degrees goal, climate-changing emissions would have to plunge 45 percent by 2030 compared to 2010 levels, the report said.

Action in cities - which consume more than two-thirds of energy globally and account for about three-quarters of carbon emissions - are pivotal to meeting the target, said report author William Solecki, a professor at Hunter College-City University of NY.

The new report will feed into a process called the 'Talanoa Dialogue, ' in which parties to the Paris accord will take stock of what has been accomplished over the past three years.

Solutions other than clear-cut emissions reductions should not be relied upon, warn the researchers behind the study. But Trump administration policies are created to reverse that trend; and if they fail to do so, it will be because rest of the world is already moving toward clean energy - a huge economic shift that threatens to leave the United States behind.

Henri Waisman, a senior researcher at Paris-based think tank IDDRI and one of 91 report authors, said the report's aim was to set out the types of transformation required as clearly as possible to inform discussions at United Nations climate talks and beyond. The report is meant to be a guide for world leaders to refer to when contemplating energy and emission standards. It will be beneficial for China if at that time we have a peaceful and less disaster-prone world, so tackling climate change is in line with China's long term goals.